Wednesday, August 26, 2020
U.S. History Terms and Definitions - Assignment Example The general public is reviewed as being associated with custom penance and, now and again, human flesh consumption. There rule reached a conclusion with the Spanish intrusion; among malady and assault, in the end the remainder of the Aztec gave up to the Spanish. Christopher Columbus: Christopher Columbus was an Italian conceived wayfarer who has frequently been credited with finding America; anyway current researchers and archeological confirmations demonstrate that that might be a legend. He made a few outings over the Atlantic Ocean investigating European premiums. His journeys led to the principal enduring European nearness in the new world and authored the term, Ã¢â¬Å"indios,Ã¢â¬ which is Spanish for Indians. His later life was loaded up with infection and uneasiness. He passed on in Spain at 54 years old. Anne Hutchinson: In 1634 Anne Hutchinson was the little girl of a priest who came to live with her better half in Boston, Massachusetts. She was supposed to be clever, frank, smart, and profoundly stubborn young lady. She was attached to sharing the lessons of John Cotton. She made a significant mix in Boston society. She blamed the nearby priests for, basically, showing the Bible wrong. Obviously, the priests denied her cases. Be that as it may, she, what at the time was an intense demonstration, guaranteed that God addressed her and allowed her to decipher scriptural substance. These contentions were destroying Boston. At last she would be brought into to court and condemned, alongside her better half, to expulsion from Boston. Jamestown: Jamestown is the primary British settlement set up in the Virginia in the year 1607 by the Virginia Company. The early long periods of the principal state knew ailment, starvation, and proceeding with assaults by the Native Americans that previous ly occupied the land. It is here that well known authentic characters like Pocahontas, John Smith, and John Rolfe met and started the accounts that this nation was established on. Indeed, Jamestown remained the legislative center of Virginia until the King accepted that the land was being blundered by the Virginia Company and the settlement turned into a state of the crown in 1622. Triangle Trade: Trade was the methods by which the early American provinces had the option to get the things that they required. The Triangle Trade was named so as a result of its 3 pointed course. The way that it worked was that molasses would be sent to New England for the makings for rum. At that point the New Englanders could make the molasses into rum and afterward transport it toward the West African coast to be exchanged for slaves. The slaves gained would be taken toward the West Indies where they would be sold for molasses and cash. Starting there the pattern of the three phases would begin once more. Extraordinary Awakening: There has been more than one timeframe credited with being Ã¢â¬Å"Great AwakeningÃ¢â¬ in the United States. It alludes to an extraordinary outreaching strict development that happened around then. The first accompanied the pioneers of the 1700s, which would at last outcome in the Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist houses of worship. There was a subsequent Great Awakening in the last piece of the eighteenth century and proceeded to the most punctual piece of the nineteenth century, which was set apart by strict great deeds of the Salvation Army and the YMCA. Stono Rebellion: This is the name given to a particular resistance that happened in South Carolina, a couple of miles outside Charleston, on September 9, 1739. A band of, around 20, slaves started strolling down the avenues and conveying a flag guaranteeing Ã¢â¬Å"Liberty!Ã¢â¬ The people took weapons and ammo, put a match to
Posted by Alina Loper at 1:51 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Ã¢â¬ ¢One of your companions utilizes the terms morals and profound quality reciprocally. You don't think this is right. How might you clarify the distinction among morals and ethical quality? Give a case of profound quality and one of morals in your clarification. Morals are progressively about a lot of rules for a particular class of individuals, or a circumstance. They are even more a lot of rules. While ethics are progressively about an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ set of rules for them, what they hold to be correct or wrong that they follow to settle on choices or take activities. A genuine model would be an attorney who is guarding an individual who has submitted a theft. The lawyerÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics discloses to him that the individual is blameworthy, yet his morals reveals to him that he should shield the individual. Ã¢â¬ ¢Select two significant moral hypotheses shrouded in your readings for Week One. What are the significant contrasts between these two hypotheses? Which one of these speculations best lines up with your own convictions? Clarify. I pick utilitarian hypothesis and deontological hypothesis. Utilitarian hypothesis is to expand utility just as boost joy while deontological hypothesis alludes to keeping rules or guidelines. Utilitarian can be where it benefits the individual or gathering state be given an end of the week off despite the fact that there is still a lot of work to be done, while inside a similar situation the representatives could nearly be compelled to work the ends of the week, despite the fact that they are drained and might want to invest energy with their families. I incline toward utilitarian as augmenting my joy is essential to me. I have worked with organizations dominatingly the Navy, whose kind of hypothesis is deontological. Obligation inside the Navy is immen se, rules make the structure. Realizing that the joy of myself and my family are a tremendous piece of my assurance when settling on the choice to take a vocation. Ã¢â¬ ¢What are instances of ideals, qualities, and good ideas? How do each of these identify with each other? In what ways would they say they are independent and in what ways would they say they are associated? Temperances are a personÃ¢â¬â¢s contemplations or potentially activities that are guided by are ethics, are ethics are what we hold to be genuine going from trustworthiness to being unwavering, while are values are essentially what he hold to be significant. They all go together like machine gear-pieces, cooperating to arrive at a similar objective, yet on the off chance that one isn't there, at that point the entire thing won't work. They are isolated on the grounds that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all somewhat unique, state like pieces of a motor, but they are totally required all together for the motor to work. In the event that one is absent the motor won't work. Ã¢â¬ ¢In Ch. 6 of Basic Ethics, the creator talks about the relationship of religion as it identifies with profound quality and morals. Utilizing your very own encounters as an asset, what, assuming any, relationship exists between religion, profound quality, and morals? Clarify your answer. Ã¢â¬ ¢Select an open figure from governmental issues or business. Select a moral hypothesis that appears to best fit this individual. For what reason does this hypothesis appear to be ideal? Which hypothesis appears to least suit this individual? Why? Hilary Clinton, she would profoundly seem to follow a deontilogical moral hypothesis. It appears to suit her and her political profession pleasantly, it simply doesn't appear to be to the greatest advantage of the residents. Following utilitarianism she would put the bliss of the voters and residents either over her own or at any rate similarly. Ã¢â¬ ¢If an individual is depicted as upright, is this equivalent to stating that individual is good or moral? Why or why not? How might you clarify the connection between these three ideas? Give models. On the off chance that one must be called moral or good I would not say that it implies that they are upright, yet I would state that on the off chance that somebody must be called highminded that they would be both moral and good. Being righteous methods having or indicating high good gauges, so to be highminded implies one would must have high morals and high ethics. The three work together, ethics is making the right decision, morals is good rules that administer a personÃ¢â¬â¢s or groupÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct, and being highminded is a mix of these two just as going above and continually being good.
Posted by Alina Loper at 8:24 AM
Thursday, August 20, 2020
Live Blogging the Franzen Guardian Essay Franzen offers a swift upper cut.to just about everyone. Last Friday, The Franzen â" he, The Jonathan, of some writerly repute for novels of the paper variety â" unleashed upon the world 6,400 words decrying just about everything invented after 1995. This piece, published on the Internet (Guardian, to be precise), was actually an excerpt from an upcoming book on Karl Kraus, an Austrian satirist and essayizzzzzzzzz. (Sorry, what happened?) So if you have $27 and a streak of masochism, you can pick up The Kraus Project: Essays by Karl Kraus on Oct. 1. And but so, chances are, you havent traversed Franzens entire excerpt, which Guardian link-baitedly titled Jonathan Franzen: whats wrong with the modern world. Its okay â" we understand, you probably got the gist on Twitter anyway. And, its not hard to find summaries of the piece around the web â" heres a particularly good one from Vulture. But if you want a few easy jokes at The Franzens expense, follow along below as I live blog a reading of the full piece. The First Chuckle: About five paragraphs in, after quoting his beloved Austrian dude, and comparing a point his beloved Austrian dude is trying to make to todays PC vs. Mac debate, Franzen comments on his annoyance at Apples advertising tactics: The argument was eminently reasonable, but it was delivered by a personified Mac (played by the actor Justin Long) of such insufferable smugness that he made the miseries of Windows attractive by comparison. Insufferable smugness, you say? Oh sweet, sweet pot â" Id like you to meet kettle. Second Chuckle: Franzen tells us: One of the worst things about the internet is that it tempts everyone to be a sophisticate â" to take positions on what is hip and to consider, under pain of being considered unhip, the positions that everyone else is taking. Wait, what? Id say, much more so, the Internet actually tempts everyone to be a knuckle-dragging assbag. Have you read the comments sections? Getting To The Headline-Maker: Were not even 1,000 words in yet, and here we have the most-quoted sentence: But I confess to feeling some version of (Krauss) disappointment when a novelist who I believe ought to have known better, Salman Rushdie, succumbs to Twitter. The choice of words here is significant, and interesting â" succumbs to Twitter. As if there were no other choice, and the venerable Rushdie did so on pain of irrelevance. This is Salman freakin Rushdie were talking about here. Lots more boring stuff about Kraus and Vienna in 1910, and how America in 2013 is similar, and some political stuff, and setting up his rail against technology Twitter Is Cigarettes: This is just a good ol WTF?! But not long ago, when I was intemperate enough to call Twitter dumb in public, the response of Twitter addicts was to call me a Luddite. Nyah, nyah, nyah! It was as if Id said it was dumb to smoke cigarettes, except that in this case I had no medical evidence to back me up. Franzen is quoting Kraus again. Explaining what Kraus means. Not succeeding in being interesting. Get a Haircut, Hippie!: Franzen complains thats it too easy to look up stuff on iPhones instead of just remembering stuff. Then, this: But Im enough of a child of the 60s to see a difference between letting your spouse remember your nieces birthdays and handing over basic memory function to a global corporate system of control. Dude, it seems to me that if youre truly a child of the 60s, youd welcome any opportunity not to have to store memories in your bong-resin and LSD-coated noodle. Whew, were at the halfway point. Time to take a break to check Twitter. We Wouldnt Like Franzen When Hes Angry: I was a white, male, heterosexual American with good friends and perfect health. And yet, for all my privileges, I became an extremely angry person. Then, Franzen relates an anecdote about throwing German coins around a train platform in 1982 because hes mad he didnt score with a German girl in Munich. Its a bizarre little tangent. But its a funny image. Some stuff about how being a novelist made him less angry, supposedly, how he came to admire Kraus, and how Kraus inspired him to expose Amuuuricas contradictions in the same way Kraus had exposed Austrias. Whoa, Unnecessarily Mean Cheap Shot!: so literary novelists are conscripted into Jennifer-Weinerish self-promotion. That was just cold. Some stuff about why Amazon is ruining books, specifically paper books. Oh, Franzen, I Cant Quit You: Franzen questions how many Amazon reviews are legitimate (as many as 1/3 are not, he quotes some source), and then offers a scenario in which well all be saved: Maybe an economically significant number of readers will come to recognise the human and cultural costs of Amazonian hegemony and go back to local bookstores or at least to barnesandnoble.com, which offers the same books and a superior e-reader, and whose owners have progressive politics. Huh?: Twitters and Facebooks latest models for making money still seem to me like one part pyramid scheme, one part wishful thinking, and one part repugnant panoptical surveillance. Franzens doctorate at Harvard Business School no doubt positions him well to tell internet businesses how to turn a profit. Oh, wait Wrapping Up: Franzens farewell: As long as modernity lasts, all days will feel to someone like the last days of humanity. Sheesh, what a drama queen. ____________________________ Sign up for our newsletter to have the best of Book Riot delivered straight to your inbox every week. No spam. We promise. To keep up with Book Riot on a daily basis, follow us on Twitter, like us on Facebook, , and subscribe to the Book Riot podcast in iTunes or via RSS. So much bookish goodnessall day, every day.
Posted by Alina Loper at 8:46 AM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
One of the biggest debate topics that has philosophers and scientists at each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s throats: Free will versus determinism. Scientist believe they have proven that free will is a mere illusion. Philosophers think other wise. With many experiments and arguments included, both have a different view about this topic. One who believes that all thing, including human behavior, are already determined are people who believe in determinism. Others who believe in free will, believe that our actions are caused by free will and are not controlled. Believing in free will means that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are not determined but also that they have a limited amount of control over themselves. These arguments are followed by questions, experiments, and very precise data. With this being said, is it possible for our own thoughts and behavior to be controlled or are our actions a result of free will? To be a determinist, a person has to believes that every cause has a result. Like causes have related results. Take a set of twins or triplets as an example. Although they do not always make the same decision as their sibling, they are quite similar (Heisenberg). Hypothetically speaking, if all actions are already determined due to cause and effect, then the twins would act coincidentally. Is it possible for there to be a factor that allows two alike people to act in various ways? Is it reasonable to think that our acts are free and that it is the element that allows us to chose for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self?Show MoreRelatedFree Will vs Determinism627 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesTed Honderich Determinism Vs Free Will Psychology 101-1322 Professor: James Pattison By: Belinda Bielicki July 2, 2011 Determinism versus Free Will: The most important and the oldest philosophical question is perhaps that of free will and determinism. Do people have free will, or are our actions pre-determined? Ted Honderich defined determinism as the philosophical idea that every event or state of affairs, including every human decision and action, is the inevitable and necessaryRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Determinism vs. Free will The belief that all events have causes and if there ever is an equivalent origin, the same outcome will occur is called determinism. Almost meaning that every event is certain and that there really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t such thing as Ã¢â¬Å"free willÃ¢â¬ . We have the debut of free will, it is an unmitigated appearance that simply holds that there is a case about anything that happens in the near future, nevertheless how it comes about. Which leads to the question, do we have free will? OrRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFree Will vs. Determinism What determines and influences human behavior? Humans have been looking the answer for this question during several eras, thus they developed various theories attempting to explain human behavior. Determinism is the belief that one event is the consequence of a previous action, similar to a chain. According to some philosophers who support determinism, the will of an agent follows physical laws, and every action is explicable and predictable by physical conditions. By thisRead MoreFree will vs. Determinism1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFree will vs. determinism is an argument as complex, intertwined, and co-dependent as nature vs. nurture or the age-old question of whether it was the chicken or the egg that came first. Philosophers have contemplated the question for ages, and arrived at no satisfactory answer. While considering which topic to address for this assignment, I posed the question of free will vs. determinism to a philosopher friend, whose response was Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care.Ã¢â¬ He feels that the question is not worth askingRead MoreFree Will And Determinism Vs. Determinism1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFree Will and Determinism For something to occur in this world, there must be the course and the reason for the occurrence, and which will then affect other future consequences. The theory of determinism states that all events whether moral choices or vices are predetermined by other existing courses. In the same connection, the free will of humans is connected to determinism since humans do things the best way, or they cannot act otherwise. According to Saul McLeod, Ã¢â¬Å"the determinist approach proposesRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDeterminism is a doctrine suggesting that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no alternative event. Free will is a philosophical term describing a particular sort of capacity of rational agents to choose a course of action from among various alternatives. Understandably, the dichotomy between these two concepts is a topic philosophers have debated over for many years. As a result of these debates, a number of alternative philos ophical perspectives arguing for the existence ofRead MoreFree Will vs. Determinism Essay1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfierce-looking meatloaf, so you decide to go with pizza. So was your decision based off of free will or was this decision predetermined? To fully understand whether your actions resulted from free will or determinism, we must first define each. Determinism is the idea that everything happens due to a cause or a determinant, which is something that can be observed or measured. To put it simply, determinism does not mean that the future can be predicted. Rather, it is a prediction of the possible outcomesRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesquestions regarding free will and determinism. Free will is a human value that has inspired many individuals throughout history. These concepts of free will and determinism have inspired many poets, spiritualist, philosophers, and activist. There have been numerous philosophers who believe free will is a part o f our human nature, and are continually questioning the concept of free will, constantly attempting to understand its true meaning. In contrast to free will, there is determinism, which seems toRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will893 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe future is already determined is known in philosophy as determinism.Ã There are various definitions of determinism available; but in this essay, I shall use the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy definition, which is Ã¢â¬Ëthe metaphysical thesis that the facts of the past, in conjunction with the laws of nature, entail every truth about the future This idea presents a difficult problem for the concept of free will:Ã how can we make free choices if all our actions are determined by the facts of theRead MoreFree Will vs Determinism Essay1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPHIL 110 Essay #2 February 15, 2010 GTF: Emma Jones Free Will vs. Determinism The argument of whether we humans are pre determined to turn out how we are and act the way we do or if we are our own decision makers and have the freedom to choose our paths in life is a long-standing controversy. The ideas of Sartre, Freud, and Darwin are each strong in their own manner, yet Sartre presents the best and most realistic argument as to how we choose our path; we are in control of the things we do and
Posted by Alina Loper at 1:15 PM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
ALJ On November 13, 2015, A Federal Trade CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s (FTC) Chief Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) held that LabMD did not violate Section 5(a)of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act) by failing to provide reasonable security for personal information on computer networks. This is the first decision that limits the authority of FTC to regulate businesses that fail to appropriately safeguard their consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ electronic personal information. FTC first became involved with consumer privacy issues in 1995, when it promoted industry self-regulation. After determining that self-regulation was not effective, FTC began taking legal action under Section 5 of the FTC Act. Section 5 limits practices considered to be unfair to instances where, among other things, 1) the practice causes or is likely to cause substantial injury to consumers; (2) the substantial injury is not reasonably avoidable by consumers; and (3) the substantial injury is not outweighed by countervailing benefits to consumers or to competition. Since 2002, the FTC has brought over 50 cases against companies that have engaged in unfair or deceptive practices that put consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ personal data at unreasonable risk. Most of these cases resulted in settlements and did not provide judicial decisions addressing the FTCÃ¢â¬â¢s authority to regulate the data security practices of companies which have suffered a data breach. The first case to test the authority of FTC was FTC v. Wyndham Worldwide Corp. After a data breachShow MoreRelatedTreating Information Privacy Flaws Of The Federal Trade Commission Act Essay874 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDEFICIENCIES IN CYBERSPACE Introduction Scholars are divided on the fundamental question of the Federal Trade CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s (FTC) adjudicative capacity under the FTC Act. The FTC uses a reasonableness standard and considers each companyÃ¢â¬â¢s data security practices on a case-by-case basis. For more than a decade, the FTCÃ¢â¬â¢s enforcement of data security actions invoked under Ã §5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act) resulted in consent decrees and settlements, subsequently scrutinized by practitioners asRead MoreFederal Trade Commission and the Act4078 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pages| Federal Trade Commission and the Act | Prepared for ASCM630.9040, Professor Charles Carey | Candy Mott-Harris 3/26/2012 | Contents ABSTRACT 2 HISTORY OF THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT 2 FALSE AND DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING 5 BAIT AND SWITCH ADVERTISING/TACTICS 8 CONSUMER FRAUD 10 IDENTIFYING, VERIFYING AND PREVENTING DECEPTION 12 CLOSING STATEMENTS ABOUT THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 13 BIBLIOGRAPHY 14 ABSTRACT The paper will serve as a historical background overviewRead MoreThe Federal Trade Commission Act931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLaw, called the Sherman Act, in an attempt to combat anti trusts and as a Ã¢â¬Å"comprehensive charter of economic liberty aimed at preserving free and unfettered competition as the rule of trade.Ã¢â¬ (The Antitrust Laws). Twenty four years later in 1914, Congress passed two more Anti-Trust Laws: the Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the Federal Trade Commission whose aim is to protect American consumers, and the Clayton act, which fills in any loopholes in the Sherman Act. Ultimately, these threeRead MoreThe Antitrust Laws Of The Federal Trade Commission Act1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSocio Ã¢â¬â Political Environment a) Antitrust Laws The first antitrust law passed by Congress was the Sherman Act, in 1890. In 1914, Congress passed two other antitrust laws: The Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the Federal Trade Commission, and the Clayton Act. With some revisions, these are the most important federal antitrust laws still in effect today. Section 7 of the Clayton Act prohibits mergers and acquisitions when the effect may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tendRead MoreThe Case Of Ftc V. Wyndham Worldwide Corp1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof their identity protection and have peace of mind when ordering online. So when online retailers do not take the proper precautions for safeguarding their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s confidential information, how should they be held accountable? Does the Federal Trade Commission have the authority to reprimand companies that expose themselves to a threatening data breach? These are the principle questions that are being considered in the case of FTC v. Wyndham Worldwide Corp. This case has greatly impacted the futureRead MoreConsumer Harm : High Bar931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesConsumer Harm: High Bar in FTC Data Security Claims ALJ On November 13, 2015, A Federal Trade CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s (FTC) Chief Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) held that LabMD did not violate Section 5(a)of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act) by failing to provide reasonable security for personal information on computer networks. This is the first decision that limits the authority of FTC to regulate businesses that fail to appropriately safeguard their consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ electronic personal information. Read MoreAdvertising Is Protected By The First Amendment Of The United States Constitution1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprotected by the First Amendment of the United States constitution. Conversely, advertising requires less control from the First Amendment, but requires the majority of control from the government and most importantly, the Federal Trade Commission. The Federal Trade Commission controls the content and images that are being advertised to consumers that seem to be exaggerated or just plain over the top. With that being said, false advertising is one of the biggest rising issues amongst many companiesRead MoreAre United States Business Laws Effective at Promoting Fair Business Practices762 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessell, trade and perform business transactions daily within a multitude of industries and professions. In order to preserve the trust and integrity of our financial systems, it is imperative that the United States implement, regulate, and enforce business practices to remain relevant and effective within the constantly changing global economic marketplace. The United States has a long history of ensuring fair and balanced business practices through legislation. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887Read MoreFederal Trade Commission640 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesArtemiy Andreev Ms.Brown February 15, 2016 The Federal Trade Commission Research The Federal trade commission or called the FTC was created in 1914. The Federal Trade Commission Act is the act that started this commission and its purpose was to prevent unfair methods of competition in commerce as a part of the battle to Ã¢â¬Å"bust the trusts.Ã¢â¬ They also did this act to enhance the informed consumer choice and public understanding of this competitive process; and another reason was to accomplishRead MoreDeceptive Advertising1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesare targeted by deceptive advertising it is just a matter of how consumer savvy you are. Almost all companies are guilty of this crime, including Phillip Morris Tobacco, weight loss programs and even grocery stores just to name a few. Under both Federal and State law, an ad is unlawful if it tends to mislead or deceive even if it doesnt actually fool anyone. If your ad is deceptive youll face legal problems whether you intended to mislead the customer or not. What counts is the overall impression
Posted by Alina Loper at 7:11 PM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
We found it is feasible to start talking about the theoretical part of our paper by casting some definitions to important aspects. Language, cul There are many definitions of culture in relation to the process of translation. One of the oldest and widely-accepted definitions of culture was formulated by the English anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor in 1871. We will write a custom essay sample on Translation: Communication of Two Cultures or any similar topic only for you Order Now Burnett defines culture asÃ¢â¬ that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of societyÃ¢â¬ (Used by the Encyclopedia Britannica (1983, vol. :657). This definition reveals a significant statement as one has to know that the term Ã¢â¬ËcultureÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to values, tradition, beliefs and social life which always determine manÃ¢â¬â¢s whole life and obviously influence much of their behavior. The aim of the above discussion is to show that since all of these social aspects have to be reflected in any language, a translator will certainly be exposed to some of these elements when translating different texts.Thus, translating a text actually means transferring the cultural parallels in the target language. There are a lot of studies and arguments that have tackled this idea; scholars have been trying to show that culture and translation go hand in hand. In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"The Nature and Role of Norms in TranslationÃ¢â¬ , Gideon Toury emphasizes on presenting the remarkable relationship between translation and culture; he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditionsÃ¢â¬ (Toury 1978:200).By stating such a definition, one has to realize that translation is not only word-to-word process (as some claim), but also a culture-to-culture process; translation is inseparable from culture. In fact, understanding the differences between the two cultures is usually more important than being familiar of the linguistic elements- including grammar and vocabulary- of these languages. This is obviously one of the major roles of the translator. The translator must convey these special cultural aspects clearly from the source language to the target language.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s inevitably the translatorÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to be familiar with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own culture and be aware of the source-language culture before being involved in the process of translation. Hence, the translator plays a crucial role in the success or failure of the process of translating. In certain cultures and due to the geographical, social, social and economical elements, various items, words, idioms and expressions may arise and lead to difficulties in translating. In the Arabic culture, for example, Compliment responses are one type of speech acts that differs considerably from Arabic to English.Native speakers of English might consider the way Arabic speakers respond to compliments offending, because they understand only the words without the cultural rules that govern them and vice versa. For example, in English and unlike Arabic, the expression Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m ashamedÃ¢â¬ would be more appropriate when an offence is committed, rather than to show gratitude and appreciation. since it is literally translated from the widely used Arabic expression akhjaltom tawaadoÃ¢â¬â¢na, This complexity lies in the fact that what is considered culturally acceptable to one group of people can be regarded as totally strange and mysterious to another.Again, this is one of the main duties of the translator. The translator has to overcome this problem by understanding theses cultural expressions that are related to one culture and then to try to find some equivalents in the other culture. This requires the translator to read and to search about this specific topic in order to see how both cultures treat this subject; this is the most important step to have a correct translation and not to have misunderstanding between the two parts.This is important since translation has been cons idered as a means of communication in which the cultural parallels that are embedded in texts are looked for and applied in order to suit the audience or the reader. The American translator, E. A Nida holds: Ã¢â¬Å"translation is the communication of two cultures. Ã¢â¬ This great statement reveals how translation can be seen as an instrument that builds bridges between nations. How to cite Translation: Communication of Two Cultures, Papers
Posted by Alina Loper at 2:12 PM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Goodwill Impairment Disclosures Australia? Answer: Introducation The Amortization of goodwill is the old concept though still valid where an organization needs to analyse the useful life of goodwill to amortize the value of goodwill on a straight-line basis over such useful life of the asset. Firstly, it is important to state that the amount of efforts needed and required to assess the useful life of goodwill of an entity is very difficult task if not feasibly impossible. Feasibly impossible because it is not possible to calculate the useful life of goodwill absolutely correctly. There after by using straight line method to amortize the value of the goodwill over the useful life of the asset does not provide any significant financial information in the financial statements to the users of the financial statements (Kabir et al. 2017). Thus, the whole process of valuation of goodwill and then to assess the useful life of the asset does not provide any important information to the users of the financial statements as the process after that is very mu ch redundant. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) has recommended that it is no longer required for the entities to do the impossible task of ascertaining the useful life of the goodwill to amortize the value of goodwill over the useful life of the assets. International Financial Reporting Standard IFRS 3 have clearly provided that the earlier requirement of amortization of goodwill over the useful life of the asset is no longer compulsory. The amortization of goodwill over the useful life of the asset will not yield any benefit to the users of the financial statements as periodical amortization of same amount on straight line basis is of no relevance as it is redundant process. On the other hand, the impairment testing which is generally conducted on the non-current assets of companies is scientifically sound method to ascertain the expected realizable value or value in use of non-current assets (Boennen and Glaum 2014). The reason is that the actual expected benefit from the use of non-current assets can be ascertained properly and the financial statements will be far more reflective of the actual financial performance and position of an entity. Similarly, the goodwill shall also be tested periodically, i.e. preferably, annually at the time of preparation and presentation of financial statements to state the actual value of the goodwill in the Balance sheet. Impairment testing will allow the organization to provide for impairment loss in respect of goodwill if the value of goodwill has reduced. Thus, the financial statements will better reflect the financial performance and position to the users of the financial statements as the expected benefit from the goodwill will be taken into consideration and included in the Balance sheet (Pawsey 2017). Thus, the process of impairment testing of goodwill to assess the financial position of an entity as on a particular date will provide relevant information to the users of the financial statements. This process is better than rendering the whole process redundant by providing amortization in the books of account of an organization for the value of the goodwill over the useful life of the asset. Therefore based on the above discussion it can be said that the process of conduction impairment testing of goodwill is more acceptable. Statement showing interest rate Particulars Annual Semi Annually Coupon Rate 6% 3% Market Interest Rate 4% 2% Number of times (year) 6 12 Issue price of debenture = Present value of Interest + Present value of Debenture Present value of Interest = 1000000*3 %*( 1-1.02^-12)/2%= $317260 Present value of principal= 1000000*1.02^-12 = $788493. Issue price of Debenture= $317260 + $788493= $1105753. Statement showing Journal entries Particulars Debit Credit i) 1 July 2015 Cash $1,105,753 Debentures $1,105,753 ii) 31 December 2015 Interest Expenses $22,115 Debenture $7,885 Cash $30,000 iii) 30 June 2016 Interest Expenses $21,957 Debenture $8,043 Cash $30,000 Statement showing calculation of the Gross profit Amounts are in million Particulars 2015 2016 2017 Contract Price 50 50 50 Less: Estimated costs Cost up to date 10 28 40 Cost estimated for completion 28 12 0 Estimated total costs 38 40 40 Estimated total Gross Profit 12 10 10 Percentage Completion 26.32% 70.00% 100.00% Statement showing calculation of Gross profit Particulars 2015 2016 2017 Total Gross Profit $3,157,895 $7,000,000 $10,000,000 GP recognized in previous year 0 $3,157,895 $7,000,000 Gross Profit recognized $3,157,895 $3,842,105 $3,000,000 Percentage completion method Journal Entry Particulars Debit Credit Construction in Progress $10,000,000.00 Material and other items $10,000,000.00 (Being the cost related to contract recorded) Accounts Receivable $12,000,000.00 Billing on Construction contracts $12,000,000.00 (Being amount billed) Cash $11,000,000.00 Accounts Receivable $11,000,000.00 (Being cash received from accounts receivable) Construction in Progess $3,157,895 Construction Expenses $10,000,000.00 Revenue from Contract $13,157,894.74 (Being percentage completion recorded) Journal Entry Particulars Debit Credit Construction in Progress $10,000,000.00 Material and other items $10,000,000.00 (Being the cost related to contract recorded) Accounts Receivable $12,000,000.00 Billing on Construction contracts $12,000,000.00 (Being amount billed) Cash $11,000,000.00 Accounts Receivable $11,000,000.00 (Being amount received against the bill received) The AASB 116 is applicable for the accounting of the property, plant and equipment except in cases where other standards permits or requires different treatment. The Para 31 of the standard provides that if the fair value of an assets can be measured reliably then the assets should be carried at revalued amount. This revalued amount shall be calculated after deducting any subsequent accumulated depreciation or impairment loss. The Para 39 of the standard provides that if as a result of revaluation the carrying amount of the assets is increased then the increase should be recorded in other comprehensive income and should be accumulated under equity as the revaluation reserve (Yao et al. 2015). That portion of the revaluation increase shall be recorded in the profit or loss that has been recognised earlier because of decrease in the carrying amount of the assets. The Para 40 provides that if there is a decrease in the carrying amount as a result of the revaluation of the asset then the decrease shall be immediately recorded in the profit or loss account. However, if there is a balance in the revaluation reserve then at first the decrease in the carrying amount is adjusted with that amount. Statement showing increase or decrease in Revaluation Investments in companies Carrying Value ($) Current fair value ($) Revaluation Increase/ (Decrease) Property, plant and equipment Factory (NSW) Land $100,000.00 $150,000.00 $50,000.00 Buildings Cost $70,000.00 $800,000.00 $730,000.00 Accumulated depreciation (20 000) Factory (Qld) Land $150,000.00 $120,000.00 -$30,000.00 Buildings Cost $125,000.00 $70,000.00 -$55,000.00 Accumulated depreciation (45 000) Journal Entry Particulars Debit Credit Factory (NSW) $50,000.00 Building (NSW) $730,000.00 Revaluation Reserve $780,000.00 (Being increase in carrying amount recorded) Profit or Loss Account/ Revaluation Reserve $85,000.00 Land $30,000.00 Building $55,000.00 (Being loss on revaluation adjusted) Reference Boennen, S. and Glaum, M., 2014. Goodwill accounting: A review of the literature. Kabir, H., Rahman, A.R. and Su, L., 2017. The Association between Goodwill Impairment Loss and Goodwill Impairment Test-Related Disclosures in Australia. Pawsey, N.L., 2017, June. IFRS adoption: A costly change that keeps on costing. InAccounting Forum(Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 116-131). Elsevier. Yao, D.F.T., Percy, M. and Hu, F., 2015. Journal of Contemporary Accounting Economics.Journal of Contemporary Accounting Economics,11, pp.31-45.
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