Sunday, May 24, 2020

Free Will Vs. Determinism - 1526 Words

One of the biggest debate topics that has philosophers and scientists at each other’s throats: Free will versus determinism. Scientist believe they have proven that free will is a mere illusion. Philosophers think other wise. With many experiments and arguments included, both have a different view about this topic. One who believes that all thing, including human behavior, are already determined are people who believe in determinism. Others who believe in free will, believe that our actions are caused by free will and are not controlled. Believing in free will means that people’s actions are not determined but also that they have a limited amount of control over themselves. These arguments are followed by questions, experiments, and very precise data. With this being said, is it possible for our own thoughts and behavior to be controlled or are our actions a result of free will? To be a determinist, a person has to believes that every cause has a result. Like causes have related results. Take a set of twins or triplets as an example. Although they do not always make the same decision as their sibling, they are quite similar (Heisenberg). Hypothetically speaking, if all actions are already determined due to cause and effect, then the twins would act coincidentally. Is it possible for there to be a factor that allows two alike people to act in various ways? Is it reasonable to think that our acts are free and that it is the element that allows us to chose for one’s self?Show MoreRelatedFree Will vs Determinism627 Words   |  3 PagesTed Honderich Determinism Vs Free Will Psychology 101-1322 Professor: James Pattison By: Belinda Bielicki July 2, 2011 Determinism versus Free Will: The most important and the oldest philosophical question is perhaps that of free will and determinism. Do people have free will, or are our actions pre-determined? Ted Honderich defined determinism as the philosophical idea that every event or state of affairs, including every human decision and action, is the inevitable and necessaryRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will1089 Words   |  5 Pages Determinism vs. Free will The belief that all events have causes and if there ever is an equivalent origin, the same outcome will occur is called determinism. Almost meaning that every event is certain and that there really isn’t such thing as â€Å"free will†. We have the debut of free will, it is an unmitigated appearance that simply holds that there is a case about anything that happens in the near future, nevertheless how it comes about. Which leads to the question, do we have free will? OrRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism879 Words   |  4 PagesFree Will vs. Determinism What determines and influences human behavior? Humans have been looking the answer for this question during several eras, thus they developed various theories attempting to explain human behavior. Determinism is the belief that one event is the consequence of a previous action, similar to a chain. According to some philosophers who support determinism, the will of an agent follows physical laws, and every action is explicable and predictable by physical conditions. By thisRead MoreFree will vs. Determinism1124 Words   |  5 PagesFree will vs. determinism is an argument as complex, intertwined, and co-dependent as nature vs. nurture or the age-old question of whether it was the chicken or the egg that came first. Philosophers have contemplated the question for ages, and arrived at no satisfactory answer. While considering which topic to address for this assignment, I posed the question of free will vs. determinism to a philosopher friend, whose response was â€Å"I don’t care.† He feels that the question is not worth askingRead MoreFree Will And Determinism Vs. Determinism1074 Words   |  5 PagesFree Will and Determinism For something to occur in this world, there must be the course and the reason for the occurrence, and which will then affect other future consequences. The theory of determinism states that all events whether moral choices or vices are predetermined by other existing courses. In the same connection, the free will of humans is connected to determinism since humans do things the best way, or they cannot act otherwise. According to Saul McLeod, â€Å"the determinist approach proposesRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will1341 Words   |  6 PagesDeterminism is a doctrine suggesting that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no alternative event. Free will is a philosophical term describing a particular sort of capacity of rational agents to choose a course of action from among various alternatives. Understandably, the dichotomy between these two concepts is a topic philosophers have debated over for many years. As a result of these debates, a number of alternative philos ophical perspectives arguing for the existence ofRead MoreFree Will vs. Determinism Essay1716 Words   |  7 Pagesfierce-looking meatloaf, so you decide to go with pizza. So was your decision based off of free will or was this decision predetermined? To fully understand whether your actions resulted from free will or determinism, we must first define each. Determinism is the idea that everything happens due to a cause or a determinant, which is something that can be observed or measured. To put it simply, determinism does not mean that the future can be predicted. Rather, it is a prediction of the possible outcomesRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism1349 Words   |  6 Pagesquestions regarding free will and determinism. Free will is a human value that has inspired many individuals throughout history. These concepts of free will and determinism have inspired many poets, spiritualist, philosophers, and activist. There have been numerous philosophers who believe free will is a part o f our human nature, and are continually questioning the concept of free will, constantly attempting to understand its true meaning. In contrast to free will, there is determinism, which seems toRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will893 Words   |  4 Pagesthe future is already determined is known in philosophy as determinism.   There are various definitions of determinism available; but in this essay, I shall use the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy definition, which is ‘the metaphysical thesis that the facts of the past, in conjunction with the laws of nature, entail every truth about the future This idea presents a difficult problem for the concept of free will:  how can we make free choices if all our actions are determined by the facts of theRead MoreFree Will vs Determinism Essay1396 Words   |  6 PagesPHIL 110 Essay #2 February 15, 2010 GTF: Emma Jones Free Will vs. Determinism The argument of whether we humans are pre determined to turn out how we are and act the way we do or if we are our own decision makers and have the freedom to choose our paths in life is a long-standing controversy. The ideas of Sartre, Freud, and Darwin are each strong in their own manner, yet Sartre presents the best and most realistic argument as to how we choose our path; we are in control of the things we do and

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Federal Trade Commission Act - 922 Words

ALJ On November 13, 2015, A Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) Chief Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) held that LabMD did not violate Section 5(a)of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act) by failing to provide reasonable security for personal information on computer networks. This is the first decision that limits the authority of FTC to regulate businesses that fail to appropriately safeguard their consumers’ electronic personal information. FTC first became involved with consumer privacy issues in 1995, when it promoted industry self-regulation. After determining that self-regulation was not effective, FTC began taking legal action under Section 5 of the FTC Act. Section 5 limits practices considered to be unfair to instances where, among other things, 1) the practice causes or is likely to cause substantial injury to consumers; (2) the substantial injury is not reasonably avoidable by consumers; and (3) the substantial injury is not outweighed by countervailing benefits to consumers or to competition. Since 2002, the FTC has brought over 50 cases against companies that have engaged in unfair or deceptive practices that put consumers’ personal data at unreasonable risk. Most of these cases resulted in settlements and did not provide judicial decisions addressing the FTC’s authority to regulate the data security practices of companies which have suffered a data breach. The first case to test the authority of FTC was FTC v. Wyndham Worldwide Corp. After a data breachShow MoreRelatedTreating Information Privacy Flaws Of The Federal Trade Commission Act Essay874 Words   |  4 PagesDEFICIENCIES IN CYBERSPACE Introduction Scholars are divided on the fundamental question of the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) adjudicative capacity under the FTC Act. The FTC uses a reasonableness standard and considers each company’s data security practices on a case-by-case basis. For more than a decade, the FTC’s enforcement of data security actions invoked under  §5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act) resulted in consent decrees and settlements, subsequently scrutinized by practitioners asRead MoreFederal Trade Commission and the Act4078 Words   |  17 Pages| Federal Trade Commission and the Act | Prepared for ASCM630.9040, Professor Charles Carey | Candy Mott-Harris 3/26/2012 | Contents ABSTRACT 2 HISTORY OF THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT 2 FALSE AND DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING 5 BAIT AND SWITCH ADVERTISING/TACTICS 8 CONSUMER FRAUD 10 IDENTIFYING, VERIFYING AND PREVENTING DECEPTION 12 CLOSING STATEMENTS ABOUT THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 13 BIBLIOGRAPHY 14 ABSTRACT The paper will serve as a historical background overviewRead MoreThe Federal Trade Commission Act931 Words   |  4 PagesLaw, called the Sherman Act, in an attempt to combat anti trusts and as a â€Å"comprehensive charter of economic liberty aimed at preserving free and unfettered competition as the rule of trade.† (The Antitrust Laws). Twenty four years later in 1914, Congress passed two more Anti-Trust Laws: the Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the Federal Trade Commission whose aim is to protect American consumers, and the Clayton act, which fills in any loopholes in the Sherman Act. Ultimately, these threeRead MoreThe Antitrust Laws Of The Federal Trade Commission Act1221 Words   |  5 PagesSocio – Political Environment a) Antitrust Laws The first antitrust law passed by Congress was the Sherman Act, in 1890. In 1914, Congress passed two other antitrust laws: The Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the Federal Trade Commission, and the Clayton Act. With some revisions, these are the most important federal antitrust laws still in effect today. Section 7 of the Clayton Act prohibits mergers and acquisitions when the effect may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tendRead MoreThe Case Of Ftc V. Wyndham Worldwide Corp1403 Words   |  6 Pagesof their identity protection and have peace of mind when ordering online. So when online retailers do not take the proper precautions for safeguarding their customer’s confidential information, how should they be held accountable? Does the Federal Trade Commission have the authority to reprimand companies that expose themselves to a threatening data breach? These are the principle questions that are being considered in the case of FTC v. Wyndham Worldwide Corp. This case has greatly impacted the futureRead MoreConsumer Harm : High Bar931 Words   |  4 PagesConsumer Harm: High Bar in FTC Data Security Claims ALJ On November 13, 2015, A Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) Chief Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) held that LabMD did not violate Section 5(a)of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act) by failing to provide reasonable security for personal information on computer networks. This is the first decision that limits the authority of FTC to regulate businesses that fail to appropriately safeguard their consumers’ electronic personal information. Read MoreAdvertising Is Protected By The First Amendment Of The United States Constitution1245 Words   |  5 Pagesprotected by the First Amendment of the United States constitution. Conversely, advertising requires less control from the First Amendment, but requires the majority of control from the government and most importantly, the Federal Trade Commission. The Federal Trade Commission controls the content and images that are being advertised to consumers that seem to be exaggerated or just plain over the top. With that being said, false advertising is one of the biggest rising issues amongst many companiesRead MoreAre United States Business Laws Effective at Promoting Fair Business Practices762 Words   |  4 Pagessell, trade and perform business transactions daily within a multitude of industries and professions. In order to preserve the trust and integrity of our financial systems, it is imperative that the United States implement, regulate, and enforce business practices to remain relevant and effective within the constantly changing global economic marketplace. The United States has a long history of ensuring fair and balanced business practices through legislation. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887Read MoreFederal Trade Commission640 Words   |  3 PagesArtemiy Andreev Ms.Brown February 15, 2016 The Federal Trade Commission Research The Federal trade commission or called the FTC was created in 1914. The Federal Trade Commission Act is the act that started this commission and its purpose was to prevent unfair methods of competition in commerce as a part of the battle to â€Å"bust the trusts.† They also did this act to enhance the informed consumer choice and public understanding of this competitive process; and another reason was to accomplishRead MoreDeceptive Advertising1524 Words   |  7 Pagesare targeted by deceptive advertising it is just a matter of how consumer savvy you are. Almost all companies are guilty of this crime, including Phillip Morris Tobacco, weight loss programs and even grocery stores just to name a few. Under both Federal and State law, an ad is unlawful if it tends to mislead or deceive even if it doesnt actually fool anyone. If your ad is deceptive youll face legal problems whether you intended to mislead the customer or not. What counts is the overall impression

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Translation Communication of Two Cultures Free Essays

We found it is feasible to start talking about the theoretical part of our paper by casting some definitions to important aspects. Language, cul There are many definitions of culture in relation to the process of translation. One of the oldest and widely-accepted definitions of culture was formulated by the English anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor in 1871. We will write a custom essay sample on Translation: Communication of Two Cultures or any similar topic only for you Order Now Burnett defines culture as† that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society† (Used by the Encyclopedia Britannica (1983, vol. :657). This definition reveals a significant statement as one has to know that the term ‘culture’ refers to values, tradition, beliefs and social life which always determine man’s whole life and obviously influence much of their behavior. The aim of the above discussion is to show that since all of these social aspects have to be reflected in any language, a translator will certainly be exposed to some of these elements when translating different texts.Thus, translating a text actually means transferring the cultural parallels in the target language. There are a lot of studies and arguments that have tackled this idea; scholars have been trying to show that culture and translation go hand in hand. In his article, â€Å"The Nature and Role of Norms in Translation†, Gideon Toury emphasizes on presenting the remarkable relationship between translation and culture; he says, â€Å"Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions† (Toury 1978:200).By stating such a definition, one has to realize that translation is not only word-to-word process (as some claim), but also a culture-to-culture process; translation is inseparable from culture. In fact, understanding the differences between the two cultures is usually more important than being familiar of the linguistic elements- including grammar and vocabulary- of these languages. This is obviously one of the major roles of the translator. The translator must convey these special cultural aspects clearly from the source language to the target language.It’s inevitably the translator’s responsibility to be familiar with one’s own culture and be aware of the source-language culture before being involved in the process of translation. Hence, the translator plays a crucial role in the success or failure of the process of translating. In certain cultures and due to the geographical, social, social and economical elements, various items, words, idioms and expressions may arise and lead to difficulties in translating. In the Arabic culture, for example, Compliment responses are one type of speech acts that differs considerably from Arabic to English.Native speakers of English might consider the way Arabic speakers respond to compliments offending, because they understand only the words without the cultural rules that govern them and vice versa. For example, in English and unlike Arabic, the expression â€Å"I’m ashamed† would be more appropriate when an offence is committed, rather than to show gratitude and appreciation. since it is literally translated from the widely used Arabic expression akhjaltom tawaado’na, This complexity lies in the fact that what is considered culturally acceptable to one group of people can be regarded as totally strange and mysterious to another.Again, this is one of the main duties of the translator. The translator has to overcome this problem by understanding theses cultural expressions that are related to one culture and then to try to find some equivalents in the other culture. This requires the translator to read and to search about this specific topic in order to see how both cultures treat this subject; this is the most important step to have a correct translation and not to have misunderstanding between the two parts.This is important since translation has been cons idered as a means of communication in which the cultural parallels that are embedded in texts are looked for and applied in order to suit the audience or the reader. The American translator, E. A Nida holds: â€Å"translation is the communication of two cultures. † This great statement reveals how translation can be seen as an instrument that builds bridges between nations. How to cite Translation: Communication of Two Cultures, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Goodwill Impairment Disclosures Australia -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Goodwill Impairment Disclosures Australia? Answer: Introducation The Amortization of goodwill is the old concept though still valid where an organization needs to analyse the useful life of goodwill to amortize the value of goodwill on a straight-line basis over such useful life of the asset. Firstly, it is important to state that the amount of efforts needed and required to assess the useful life of goodwill of an entity is very difficult task if not feasibly impossible. Feasibly impossible because it is not possible to calculate the useful life of goodwill absolutely correctly. There after by using straight line method to amortize the value of the goodwill over the useful life of the asset does not provide any significant financial information in the financial statements to the users of the financial statements (Kabir et al. 2017). Thus, the whole process of valuation of goodwill and then to assess the useful life of the asset does not provide any important information to the users of the financial statements as the process after that is very mu ch redundant. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) has recommended that it is no longer required for the entities to do the impossible task of ascertaining the useful life of the goodwill to amortize the value of goodwill over the useful life of the assets. International Financial Reporting Standard IFRS 3 have clearly provided that the earlier requirement of amortization of goodwill over the useful life of the asset is no longer compulsory. The amortization of goodwill over the useful life of the asset will not yield any benefit to the users of the financial statements as periodical amortization of same amount on straight line basis is of no relevance as it is redundant process. On the other hand, the impairment testing which is generally conducted on the non-current assets of companies is scientifically sound method to ascertain the expected realizable value or value in use of non-current assets (Boennen and Glaum 2014). The reason is that the actual expected benefit from the use of non-current assets can be ascertained properly and the financial statements will be far more reflective of the actual financial performance and position of an entity. Similarly, the goodwill shall also be tested periodically, i.e. preferably, annually at the time of preparation and presentation of financial statements to state the actual value of the goodwill in the Balance sheet. Impairment testing will allow the organization to provide for impairment loss in respect of goodwill if the value of goodwill has reduced. Thus, the financial statements will better reflect the financial performance and position to the users of the financial statements as the expected benefit from the goodwill will be taken into consideration and included in the Balance sheet (Pawsey 2017). Thus, the process of impairment testing of goodwill to assess the financial position of an entity as on a particular date will provide relevant information to the users of the financial statements. This process is better than rendering the whole process redundant by providing amortization in the books of account of an organization for the value of the goodwill over the useful life of the asset. Therefore based on the above discussion it can be said that the process of conduction impairment testing of goodwill is more acceptable. Statement showing interest rate Particulars Annual Semi Annually Coupon Rate 6% 3% Market Interest Rate 4% 2% Number of times (year) 6 12 Issue price of debenture = Present value of Interest + Present value of Debenture Present value of Interest = 1000000*3 %*( 1-1.02^-12)/2%= $317260 Present value of principal= 1000000*1.02^-12 = $788493. Issue price of Debenture= $317260 + $788493= $1105753. Statement showing Journal entries Particulars Debit Credit i) 1 July 2015 Cash $1,105,753 Debentures $1,105,753 ii) 31 December 2015 Interest Expenses $22,115 Debenture $7,885 Cash $30,000 iii) 30 June 2016 Interest Expenses $21,957 Debenture $8,043 Cash $30,000 Statement showing calculation of the Gross profit Amounts are in million Particulars 2015 2016 2017 Contract Price 50 50 50 Less: Estimated costs Cost up to date 10 28 40 Cost estimated for completion 28 12 0 Estimated total costs 38 40 40 Estimated total Gross Profit 12 10 10 Percentage Completion 26.32% 70.00% 100.00% Statement showing calculation of Gross profit Particulars 2015 2016 2017 Total Gross Profit $3,157,895 $7,000,000 $10,000,000 GP recognized in previous year 0 $3,157,895 $7,000,000 Gross Profit recognized $3,157,895 $3,842,105 $3,000,000 Percentage completion method Journal Entry Particulars Debit Credit Construction in Progress $10,000,000.00 Material and other items $10,000,000.00 (Being the cost related to contract recorded) Accounts Receivable $12,000,000.00 Billing on Construction contracts $12,000,000.00 (Being amount billed) Cash $11,000,000.00 Accounts Receivable $11,000,000.00 (Being cash received from accounts receivable) Construction in Progess $3,157,895 Construction Expenses $10,000,000.00 Revenue from Contract $13,157,894.74 (Being percentage completion recorded) Journal Entry Particulars Debit Credit Construction in Progress $10,000,000.00 Material and other items $10,000,000.00 (Being the cost related to contract recorded) Accounts Receivable $12,000,000.00 Billing on Construction contracts $12,000,000.00 (Being amount billed) Cash $11,000,000.00 Accounts Receivable $11,000,000.00 (Being amount received against the bill received) The AASB 116 is applicable for the accounting of the property, plant and equipment except in cases where other standards permits or requires different treatment. The Para 31 of the standard provides that if the fair value of an assets can be measured reliably then the assets should be carried at revalued amount. This revalued amount shall be calculated after deducting any subsequent accumulated depreciation or impairment loss. The Para 39 of the standard provides that if as a result of revaluation the carrying amount of the assets is increased then the increase should be recorded in other comprehensive income and should be accumulated under equity as the revaluation reserve (Yao et al. 2015). That portion of the revaluation increase shall be recorded in the profit or loss that has been recognised earlier because of decrease in the carrying amount of the assets. The Para 40 provides that if there is a decrease in the carrying amount as a result of the revaluation of the asset then the decrease shall be immediately recorded in the profit or loss account. However, if there is a balance in the revaluation reserve then at first the decrease in the carrying amount is adjusted with that amount. Statement showing increase or decrease in Revaluation Investments in companies Carrying Value ($) Current fair value ($) Revaluation Increase/ (Decrease) Property, plant and equipment Factory (NSW) Land $100,000.00 $150,000.00 $50,000.00 Buildings Cost $70,000.00 $800,000.00 $730,000.00 Accumulated depreciation (20 000) Factory (Qld) Land $150,000.00 $120,000.00 -$30,000.00 Buildings Cost $125,000.00 $70,000.00 -$55,000.00 Accumulated depreciation (45 000) Journal Entry Particulars Debit Credit Factory (NSW) $50,000.00 Building (NSW) $730,000.00 Revaluation Reserve $780,000.00 (Being increase in carrying amount recorded) Profit or Loss Account/ Revaluation Reserve $85,000.00 Land $30,000.00 Building $55,000.00 (Being loss on revaluation adjusted) Reference Boennen, S. and Glaum, M., 2014. Goodwill accounting: A review of the literature. Kabir, H., Rahman, A.R. and Su, L., 2017. The Association between Goodwill Impairment Loss and Goodwill Impairment Test-Related Disclosures in Australia. Pawsey, N.L., 2017, June. IFRS adoption: A costly change that keeps on costing. InAccounting Forum(Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 116-131). Elsevier. Yao, D.F.T., Percy, M. and Hu, F., 2015. Journal of Contemporary Accounting Economics.Journal of Contemporary Accounting Economics,11, pp.31-45.

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Nestles change management report

Executive summary Competitive advantage and commercial success are very important aspects of modern day businesses and without this two factors, businesses often fail at some stage. Due to the volatile nature of the commercial environment businesses through their managers are required to be quite radical in the way they operate so that the current change management structures are able to assist the organization effect any strategic changes if necessary.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Nestle’s change management report specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nestle is a good example of an organization which put in place a good management structure that made it very possible for the organization to embrace change because the organization identified the exact needs that were to accompany the change and therefore when managers initiated the change the entire organization was able to swiftly adopt to the new strategi c changes. When Nestle finally discovered that change is part and parcel of the organization they put in place change management strategies and also assisted organizational members to accept change more effectively making change management efforts from managers more successful. Introduction The current business environment is very volatile and dynamic and what is happening today will most likely change tomorrow, hence every organization needs proper change management. Change is inevitable in an organization and organizational managers are expected to behave like change agents who champion and advocate for change within the organization. Change must be accompanied by reason since organizations do not just change because other organizations are changing but because they need to change and if they do not change they will most likely not achieve their commercial objectives (Eden 2002, 804). The nature of changes from organization to organization always varies and therefore every organiz ation is expected to carefully monitor and manage the entire change process in order to ensure corporate, business and functional levels of strategies are not negatively affected (Wheelen Hunger 2002, 76-78). The main purpose of change in most instances is to rejuvenate the organization and improve its performance and hence managers are expected to ensure that the entire change process within the organization is quickly accepted within the organization so that both short-term and long-run performance is not affected negatively.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Change strategies therefore provide managers with numerous options which they can use to successfully marshal organizational members to quickly accept and adapt to strategic changes without negatively affecting the performance of the organization (Feldman 2000, 618). Change management is consequently part of the curre nt business atmosphere that commercial organizations exist in and this require that they dedicate significant resources and therefore it makes more sense if these organizations put up the necessary change management systems so that all organizational members can be in the same page as far as welcoming organizational change is concerned. The nature and need for change within Nestle The entire change process of Nestle was only successful because the organization identified the exact needs that initiated the change and also went forward to develop the appropriate change management strategies to usher in change. Emerging business trends and decisions have prompted Nestle to experience changes in its business model. Due to the fact that the organization is venturing into foreign markets and stepping out of isolation and venturing into new territories, this introduces a lot of complexities and may lead to ambiguity, which may often be fatal if not well managed. The nature of the change wi thin Nestle involves divesture of Strategic Business Units (SBU’S), which are not profitable and serve as a disadvantage to the company. Divesture normally requires organizations to sell existing business units and invest those funds in other more important business processes such as corporate restructuring or expanding to other business territories. Moreover, Nestle also considers growing its business structure by venturing into the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, and these kinds of changes are not easy. Expanding businesses often require change in management structure and approach and that is why the organization is also dumping the entrepreneurial way of management and adapting a corporate management business format which heavily depends on managers (Wheelen Hunger 2002, 244). All these changes have been triggered by the organizations desire to grow in size by going multinational and stepping out of isolation. Moreover, the management desires to step up sales and re venue hence stepping of using sales agents in the global market and entering into agreements with local subsidiaries in foreign markets by acquiring them or entering into contracts.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Nestle’s change management report specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The C.E.O, Brabeck-Letmathe, believed that change is very appropriate for the company because it will enable the company to realize efficiency and also increase productivity within the organization. Additionally, the entire corporate restructuring which costs almost $300 million annually is a type of change that is initiated by the need attaining a good and effective business structure whereby managers can be incomplete control of the entire businesses of the organization. The C.E.O believes that the organization’s desire/need to have a competitive advantage, grow, become flexible and highly flexible within the market dep ends on how well the organization can be able to respond to change. The nature of change requires the commitment of the entire organization and should therefore have a long-term approach therefore requiring managers to involve all organizational members. Moreover, managers are required to be highly critical of the nature of change and not just rush into changes such as technological change unless they are fully sure that the change is most likely to be for the benefit of the organization. Challenges Change in most instances within organizations, Nestle being an example in this case, is not always welcomed for the reason that it definitely demands that human resources and organizational personnel to commence a cultural change which is not easy because it involves removing people comfort zones to new unfamiliar territory and for an organization such as Nestle which has over 220,000 employees the entire change process should be a product of careful planning. Change is not easy and simp le and employees may often refuse or rebel against regimes that champion for change and this usually affects the performance of the organization. Additionally, change may end up being expensive and exhausting to organizations therefore affecting performance of the organization negatively (Eden 2002, 803). Organizations and managers are faced with a lot of challenges especially during the change phase in organization especially due to the fact that employees often do resist then it automatically becomes hard to maintain the vigor and passion of employees all the way through the change process and this results to negative consequences within the organization. Additionally, if all organizational members are not on the same page this may sabotage the entire change process because the organization may most likely backslide into old ways of operation (Hughes 2007, 41-43). Hence, change management is a must if an organization is to survive and ensure its objectives are met without compromi sing the stakeholders involved in the organization.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is not easy managing cultural shifts within organizations and managers are required to come up with the most appropriate culture changing initiatives for organizational members to accept change. Change is not only complex but also costly for organization restructuring and most of the time it becomes hard for managers to prioritize the numerous organizational projects and resources, and this is one of the reasons why the C.E.O Brabeck-Latmathe insisted that it is sometimes better to adopt a slow and steady approach when it comes to issues of expansion and divesture because nestle spent well over $300 million annually in restructuring costs (Steiner 1997, 128). Prior to implementing change initiatives within organizations, it is vital that managers who are change champions/agents for the companies to understand the resulting effects and consequences of the changes process on the workers (Eden 2002, 805). By doing so, the managers will appropriately prepare for any challenges and th is will see the organization formulate better change policies and strategies in order to avoid many of the potential pitfalls that may arise as a result of the challenges which accompany the entire organizational change process. When managers get to comprehend the cognitive change process then they are likely to managing the entire process more effectively and marshal the corporation of other organizational members Change Management Change is always received with hostility because it is accompanied by uncertainty and people usually fear uncertainty and the entire change process was not smooth and easy for an organization such as Nestle. Therefore, this is the reason why managers such as the C.E.O Brabeck-Letmathe of Nestle become champions of change within the organization and hence come up with the more appropriate strategies that will make it possible for a smooth transition to take place to allowing organizational members gradually and successfully accept organizational changes a nd therefore welcome in the new era that will assist the organization become better in terms of performance. Contemporary Management theories hold on to the belief that organizational change must take place whenever organization themselves in complex / ambiguous situations that necessitate the organization to move from ordinary ways of doing business to a much more radical business model in order to improve the performance of the organization (Wheelen Hunger 2002, 78). This fact was reflected in Nestle when the company decided to shift its focus from the local Swiss market to other parts of the world such as North America. The main endeavor during the organizational change phase is for the organizational change managers to maintain some balance and tranquility by working together with other organizational members so that the organization can ultimately progress (Steiner 1997, 203-204). Current operations should be carried out in such a way that the organization will respond in the most effective way to unpredictable commercial and non commercial events when they occur according to the organization adaptation theory. The organizational adaptation theory insists that organizations are more likely to become more successful only if the organizations gives up rigid business structures and decide to put in place the necessary framework to usher in change more effectively making them flexible. Managers often use numerous strategies to enable their organizations accept change within their organizations. Figure 1. A pictorial diagram indicating what organizational change normally involves Change Management Strategies Whatever change management strategy is pursued by managers it is necessary that the organization dedicates the required resources that are required to implement the changes. Implementing change is not simple for an organization such as Nestle as it expands and divest and therefore the organization should most of all make sure that it develops clear goals and communication systems and also go ahead to offer rewards and incentives in order to encourage organizational members to accept the change without altering their motivation (Tovstiga 2010, 49-54). Despite stand of organizational members as the organization moves into North America and other non-related business industries a non biased support system should be formed, so that organizational members can get the necessary help as far as the change process is concerned. Facilitation Organizational change is not simple and managers are required to be change agents and also use other organizational members to bring about change. Often one of the best approaches that managers can use is to work hand in hand with other organizational members in the process of creating the change. When managers decide to work hand in hand then the possibility of the change being successful goes up. Facilitation often involves educating employees and creating the best communication systems that encourage the flow of information and feedback loops (Wheelen Hunger 2002, 38-44). When managers decide to work together with other organizational members by communicating their intentions and vision and giving clear reasons why change is inevitable within the organization and the intentions of the change then organizational members will likely be more receptive to work with the manager. Facilitation offers a good way under which when organizational members are willing to welcome change and desire collaborate but they lack the capacity to effectively blend in into the new change regime (Hughes 2007, 42). Education Often employees refuse change because of information asymmetry and it hence becomes necessary for management to educate them on the main reason why change is important. Education enables organizational members understand the reasons of the change, the benefits, and all variables of the entire change process. As a result of proper education systems organizational members are able to rationalize change and what is expected for them (Eden 2002, 802). Because sometimes the resistance to organizational change is triggered by perceptual issues, the education programs can make employees less rigid especially if they understand that change can be rewarding. Education offers an avenue under which employees can be empowered to understand what the entire change process entails and how it can be easy for both them and the organization (Cascio 2002, 84) Involvement Sometimes the change process within the organization does not only emanate from the higher levels of the organizational hierarchy. When organizational members are not involved physically or intellectually, or emotionally then they may feel as if their opinions are not respected and therefore this could ultimately affects their motivation and this may sabotage the entire change process. Allowing organizational members offer their suggestions and become involved in the process of change offers an avenue under whi ch all organizational members become change agents and own the change process (Wheelen Hunger 2002, 243). When the change is a brainchild of the organizational members then there is no way that the employees themselves can sabotage the change process. Negotiation When management and the organizational change agents discover that the other party the other cannot easily be persuaded, it therefore becomes necessary to reach a consensus through negotiation. Organizational managers will hence be required to enter into conference/board rooms and ask them to discuss with each other in order to ensure that the change process is accepted (Eden 2002, 804). Especially when change involves mergers and acquisitions in unrelated industries which are common for Nestle resistance to change is most likely to be very high and negotiation may often be the best way for change to be accepted. Negotiations are a way under which mutually agreeable solution that works for both the organization and organiz ational members can be arrived at (Wetlaufer 2001, 115). Manipulation Manipulation is an art used by managers and involves controlling a person’s environment so that a suitable outcome can be arrived at. Despite the fact that manipulation is considered as morally questionable, organizational managers are forced to use it especially when the stakes are high and change is required to take place quickly. Some ways of manipulating employees may involve using psychological and monetary awards to force them accept change regimes faster (Watson 2006, 72) Coercion Change management strategies fail managers are often forced to take extreme measures and often coercion is the only option. If manipulation fails those managers might decide to use threats and force to enable organizational members change. Some of the threats may involve threatening employees will lose their jobs, allowances and job related benefits (Wetlaufer 2001, 114). Unorthodox managers may often go as far as humiliati ng and threatening employees or even public sacking in order to create fear and make examples out of organizational members who have not yet adopted change. This should only be used as a change management strategy of last resort especially when change is to be implemented in a hurry. Conclusion The role of change management in commercial organizations is directly related to the success of the organization. Managers are required to justify the need of the change, the nature of changes, the challenges that will accompany the change and pick the most appropriate strategy to implement change and make it acceptable among organizational members. Managers should not ignore the important role that change management plays and therefore should dedicate the necessary resources and support to organizational managers in order for organizational members to accept change in the most appropriate timeframe. References Cascio, W., 2002. â€Å"Strategies for responsible restructuring.† Academy of Management Executive 16(3): pp. 80–91. Eden, C., 2002. â€Å"Strategy development as a social process.† Journal of Management Studies, vol.29: pp.799–812. Feldman, M., 2000. â€Å"Organizational routines as a source of continuous change.† Organization Science 11(6):pp. 611–29. Hughes, M. 2007. â€Å"The Tools and Techniques of Change Management.† Journal of Change Management, 7(1): 37-49. Steiner, G., 1997. Strategic planning: what every manager must know. New York: Simon and Schuster. Tovstiga, G., 2010. Strategy in Practice: A Practitioner’s Guide to Strategic Thinking. New Jersey: John Wiley Sons. Watson, T., 2006. Organizing and managing work, 2nd edn. London: Penguin. Wetlaufer, S., 2001. â€Å"The business case against revolution.† Harvard Business Review, 79(2): pp.113–119. Wheelen, T. L. Hunger J. D., 2002. Strategic Management and Business Policy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. This report on Nestle’s change management report was written and submitted by user Man-Thing to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

jan 09 english question Essay

jan 09 english question Essay jan 09 english question Essay Jan 09 English Question The story â€Å"An Encounter† is a part of the ‘childhood’ section of the collection of stories in Dubliners, and it explores the characteristics of child voice and child viewpoint the section contains. The extract of the story indicates a change in the boy’s attitude with regards to the old man. The initial response that the boy has when the man approaches them is that his voice is pleasingly liberal and well read, and as such was attractive to him. However, in the extract this perception seems to change, as it comes after the boy begins to feel uneasy around the man and decides to adopt false names as an indicator of his growing unease. The seemingly inconspicuous title â€Å"An Encounter† makes the events in the story seem less sinister and wide ranging, so it was the boy’s reaction to the old man that was pivotal to the role of the encounter in the story rather than the existence of the man himself. This could be to show that the story presents the realities of real life and the difficulties that the boy will have to face as he grows up and becomes an adult. His changing perspective on the man and his growing awareness throughout the extract shows the speed of his maturation process, and how he is progressing to become a man. In the extract, the voice of the narrator is used to show the boy’s growing mindfulness as he reflects on the words of the stranger. Joyce uses language to manipulate his narrator to reveal his own personal viewpoint and voice in the story. The methods used to capture the voice of the old man change throughout the whole encounter. Initially, the boy seems detached from the situation, using devices of indirect speech e.g. â€Å"he said†, â€Å"he asked†, â€Å"he began†. As the extract progresses the boy becomes more involved in the conversation and the terms of speech gradually become more direct. The middle section of the first paragraph seems to be almost word for word the man’s statements. This shows that the boy is gradually becoming more aware of the man’s intentions and thoughts as the conversation develops, and his involvement in the discussion becomes more explicit. Also, the idea of an emerging paralysis of the boy is put forward by Joyce to emphasise the growing paralysis of the people of Dublin. This paralysis is shown by the silence of the boy during the conversation, in contrast to his dreamed, irate interaction: â€Å"I was going to reply indignantly that we were not National School boys to be whipped, as he called it; but I remained silent.† The use of a semi-colon extends the pause between the two clauses, and implies reflection; whereas the use of italics on the word â€Å"whipped† implies the indignant nature of the boy’s imagined delivery of his retort. His inability to confront the old man and act further emphasises his paralysis and implies the paralysis of the rest of the people in Dublin. Joyce’s manipulation of narrative perspective throughout the extract reveals that the sexual nature of the man’s obsession with â€Å"whipping boys† is outside the boy’s immature frame of reference. The manner in which the boy recounts and comments on the man’s words proves this, with the constant referencing to the fact that it is indeed the man who made these utterances – with constant allusions to the man â€Å"he seemed†, â€Å"he said†. Contrary to the idea of a growing awareness being highlighted in the boy throughout, at the end of the extract, Joyce emphasises the fact that the boy doesn’t fully understand the man: â€Å"seemed to plead with me that I should understand him.† â€Å"An Encounter† shows a growing awareness

Thursday, February 20, 2020

History of elizabeth Arden (Make-Up company) Research Paper

History of elizabeth Arden (Make-Up company) - Research Paper Example The Spa was opened on Fifth Avenue, and it has formed the basis of the existing world cosmetics giant, which has been involved in acquiring many other brands and products from various producers, to boost its line of products. The proprietor of the company was a women’s advocate who was very active in advocating for the rights of women, through searching for all ways to empower women, at an age when the rights of women was a disturbing subject that many avoided to confront with. As a way of empowering and showing the solidarity of women, she advocated for beauty and fragrance of women through the use of make-ups, which then gave her the motivation to establish the make-up salon, the Red Door salon, which she could use for advocacy campaign, where alongside other 15,000 women who were suffragettes, she matched past her salon wearing red lipstick, as a show for women’s solidarity2. Initially started as the Red Door salon, the company obtained its present name from the coin age of a name from a previous partnership that Florence Graham had with Elizabeth Hubbard, which dissolved in 1909, and then added the name Arden from her favorite poem, Enoch Arden, to come up with the current name of the company3. She embarked on a journey of growing the business, both as a motivation for other women to get into independent productive ventures, and also to prove to those who were opposed to giving women their rights. Florence Nightingale Graham increased her business management skills through travelling to France in 1912 to learn the techniques of running a beauty salon, while also learning the kind of products that were used in such salons. There, she learnt the beauty and face massage skills, as well as learning how to prepare various powders for use in the massage process. When she returned back home later in that year, she had all the requisite skills of diversifying her business from just offering beauty services and products, to the inclusion of massage serv ices. By 1914, the expansion strategy for the business was well shaped, with the business starting to formulate, manufacture and sell its own beauty and cosmetics products. Thus, the Red Door salon grew and expanded immensely, and by 1915, she embarked on making her business international, through opening other salons in different parts of the world, where the first the Elizabeth Arden salon was opened in France in 19224. By 1930, the Red Door salons had been established in the major fashion capitals of the world, and thus the company, as a brand, had become as popular as the Coca-Cola Company. Until her death in 1962, Elizabeth Arden, Inc. had been recognized the world over as a giant in the cosmetics industry, and she had won several honors for her contribution to the 21st century entrepreneurship. However, the company was highly affected by the great depression occurring in the period 1938, although the brands of the company were still popular, thus it continued to make reasonabl e sales that enabled it to survive the economic crisis, while earning low profits. The Elizabeth Arden, Inc. during the World War II Elizabeth Arden, Inc. was especially active during the World War II period, with a special focus on facilitating women who were joining the fighting forces. This way, the Elizabeth Arden, Inc. engaged in the production of various brands meant for the women soldiers, which included lipsticks that were required to match the uniform of